The terms port, harbour and haven are more or less synonymous, but each of them also has specific meanings. A harbour (US spelling "harbor") is a place of security and comfort, a small bay or other sheltered part of an area of water, usually well protected against high waves and strong currents, and deep enough to provide anchorage for ships and other craft. It is also a place where port facilities are provided, e.g. accommodation for ships and cargo handling facilities. The term port or seaport normally includes the harbour and the adjacent town or city suitable for loading goods and embarking men. A haven is a type of harbour used in literature or in names and adds the idea of refuge.
Ships are accommodated and handled, i.e. loaded and unloaded, at such port structures as; wharfs or quays, piers and jetties, and sometimes alongside moles or breakwaters. Any place where a ship can safely lie alongside a quay, pier or dock, at anchor or a buoy, and where they can carry out loading/discharge operations or embark and disembark passengers is called a berth A dry dock is a type of dock consisting of a rectangular basin dug into the shore of a body of water and provided with removable enclosure wall or gate on the side toward the water, used for major repairs and overhaul of vessels. When a ship is to be docked, the dry dock is flooded, and the gate removed.
Wharf ((lucka) obala) is the oldest term in English referring to port structures. It denotes any structure of timber, masonry, cement, or other material built along or at an angle to the navigable waterway, with sufficient depth of water to accommodate vessels and receive and discharge cargo or passengers. The term can be substituted for quay ((lucka) obala) when applied to great solid structures in large ports. The area between the quay wall (made of solid masonry) and the nearby warehouse or storage facility is ca1led the quay apron. A pier (gat) is a construction work extending into the harbour with sufficient depth of water alongside to accommodate vessels, also used as a promenade or landing place for passengers. A jetty (gat) is a small pier, usually made of timbers for boats, yachts or fishing boats (fisherman jetty), but it also refers to large ships (tanker jetty, T-jetty).
The term dock has a number of meanings. It is an artificially enclosed basin into which vessels are brought for inspection and repair. A dock is a place, usually man-made area of enclosed water, where ships are loaded, unloaded or repaired. Originally, it denotes an area of water that can accommodate a ship and can be closed off by locks to allow regulation of the water level. It also means a space between two wharves or piers for the mooring of ships, i.e. a dock basin. Often it can be interchanged with the terms wharf or pier. In US it often indicates a small landing pier for accommodating boats in a river or lake creek. The word terminal refers to a complete port facility for accommodating, loading/discharge of ships and for the storage, stacking and handling of cargo on shore(e.g. bulk cargo terminal, oil terminal, livestock terminal, etc.).
Seaports in this context are required to evolve from traditional port functions (i.e. loading and discharging) to more advanced activities which could add complexity in managing internal port operations. In addition to ports internal complexity, seaport management faces plenty of external challenges such as; sever competition, globalisation, limited resources and variability.
Hence, it is obvious that there is a need for new innovative management approaches aiming to;
1) eliminate sources of waste (Lean thinking);
2) help port system to be agile; and
3) support decision making process.
Owing the fact that most of port systems are still administrated by public authorities, many issues are needed to investigate which create further research opportunities. Various authors suggested that one of the most critical elements influencing seaport performance is port reformation process and the overlap between public and private ownerships. Port investment is another important issue facing port management. Arising from the complex nature of ports, analysing investments in ports includes: investment in port infrastructure, superstructure and hinterland connection. Many other aspects such as, port capacity, landside limitations, port competitive structure, port regulations changes, port networks, port efficiency, etc.were highlighted in port management literature.
Effective planning and management of complex systems are virtually overwhelming. This is explaining why port management is the centre of Governments’ interest and the area which need more research efforts for improving. In reality, port system is dynamic, nonlinear in its nature, and its performance is a function of multiple/complex interactions and feedback mechanisms. Researches has been done in an attempt to provide seaport free of waste, resilient to external changes, add values to end customers and more competitive. Therefore, several approaches like; lean port, agile port, port as logistics centre, fourth generation ports, and ports as supply chain was discussed. Similarly, port efficiency is a widespread concept that is commonly used for port systems improvement process. Few studies presented assessment approaches for port efficiency using different analytical tools like; data envelopment analysis (DEA), stochastic frontier models, cost functions, etc.
These Improvement efforts for seaport systems are confronted with several types of environmental and operational risks. The downtime of the ports due to risk occurrence causes severe economic loss. Indeed, published articles showed that many types of accidents such as, earthquakes, oil spills, fires, sea accidents, etc., can seriously disrupt terminal operations. To minimize the damage of these accidents, it is extremely important to pay great attention to the various sources of risks that are to happen during the normal harbour activities within particular circumstances. Based on the literature, accidents are not the only source of risks, but also uncontrollable environmental conditions, dynamic nature of port systems, unclear organisational structure and system uncertainty create additional sources of risk. Basically, previous studies utilized plenty of quantitative approaches for risk assessment and its impact on seaport performance. Simulation model, multiobjective programming and bayesian belief network are the most common techniques used for analysing harbour risks.
Nowadays, seaport management faces numerous difficulties at the current competitive markets. Many critical decisions should be taken not only for solving daily problems, but also to improve overall port performance. Port management can be categorised based on different perspectives (e.g. strategic, economic and operational). Due to the internal dynamics of seaport systems, these management decisions are usually taken within an environment of uncertainty, variability and limited resources.
Within the context of strategic perspectives, the impact of port administration authorities (i.e. private or public) on port efficiency, landside limitation, port investments, port accessibility, port charges determination and establishing port network are represented strategic areas that were handled by many authors. From the economical point of view, few researches have focused on the analytical approaches that can be used to assess seaport economic efficiency (e.g. production function, cost functions, stochastic frontier model, etc.); whereas, the others used economic terms (e.g. profit, cost, etc. ) as performance indicators reflecting the significance of management alternatives. Finally, operational decisions take into account the optimization of port operations as well as the best allocation of port resources in order to optimise the whole system performance. Resources utilisation, total system throughput and cycle time are usually used as performance measures for this type of problems.
The seaport is everything relating to the implementation of the function port to support the smooth, security and order of traffic flows ships, passengers and / or goods, safety and security sailing, place intra and / or intermodal displacement as well encourage the national economy and areas with fixed attention to the order space region, that the port function it requires an information system management with the application of technology in the marine transportation sector.
The results are expected is with the application technology-based information systems expected, port management performance can increase. Expected The Government conducts coaching, supervision and enforcement law against stakeholders at the port who broke the rules.
The system is computer-based which helps improve efficiency decision making mechanism, so it can quickly anticipate dynamics of change and information.
Managing technology investments used in the port should be pay attention to some important issues such as the following:
a. Determine the basics of consideration in investment, which is in investment information technology is not always the value of benefits is calculated using Return On Investation (ROI). Need also considered non-technology, such as customer satisfaction, increase sales and levels profit.
b. Set priorities, for determining this priority is required planning to determine program indicators to be implemented so capital or cost can be follow the thing.
c. Management process to realize benefits, beneficiaries need determined from the beginning so as to the purpose of the investment can be measured the value of benefits.
d. The role of bigdata as an instrument store data;
e. Information security.