The Journey Of Internet and Web

The Internet Revolution...

“We are all now connected by the Internet, like a neurons in giant brain.” -Stephen Hawking.

• 1945 – VannevarBush writes about “memex”, a futuristic, automatic, personal library system

• 1960s – Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) does research on “internetwork”, connecting small and large networks

• 1968 – Doug Engelbartdemonstrates NLS, a hypertext system that uses a “mouse”

• 1969 – ARPANETgoes online with 4 nodes

• 1969 – Request for Comments (RFC) created for quickly disseminating ideas with other network researchers Telnet allows user to login to a remote computer (RFC 15)

• 1971 – Ray Tomlinson sends first e-mail (sent to himself and probably read “QWERTYUIOP”). FTP(File Transfer Protocol) allows files to be transferred between computers (RFC 114)

• 1981 – ARPANET (Internet) has 200 nodes

• 1982 – ARPANETstandardizes its use of TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) to send data packets across the network

• 1983 – Domain Name System (DNS) developed

• 1985 – NSFNETestablished, would later become major part of the Internet backbone

• 1986 – Over 10,000 nodes on ARPANET. US military portion of ARPANET splits off into MILNET (military-only network)

• 1988 – Over 100,000 nodes on Internet http

• 1988 – First Internet worm by Robert Tappan Morris crashes 6% of servers on InternetIANAestablished to oversee global IP address allocation (and other)

• 1990 – Tim Berners-Leeand others at CERN develop the WorldWideWeb(WWW), HTML documents transmitted over the Internet by a web server to web browsers using URIs and HTTP (1stweb page online on Aug 6, 1991)

• 1992 – ViolaWWWbrowser for UNIX 50 web servers

• 1993 – 500 web serversMosaicweb browser –multi-platform and1stbrowser to display inline images, written by Marc Andreesen

• 1994 – 2,500 web serversWWW Consortium (W3C) began Netscape 1.0, Yahoo!Web directory started by Jerry Yang and David Filo

• 1995 – Netscape 2.0 –Supported plug-ins, frames, Java applets, JavaScript

• 1995 - Internet Explorer 1.0released by Microsoft

• 1996 – Macromedia Flash1.0 (previously called FutureSplashAnimator)Internet Archive begins archiving the Web

• 1997 – HTML 4.0 de facto standard. Browser Wars I: Netscape vs. IE

• 1998 – Network Solutions registers 2 millionth domain name Emergence of ICANN created to manage IP address space and DNS rootzone

• 1998 – Google founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin

• 2000 –Napstersued over music sharingWeb size estimates by NEC-RI and Inktomisurpass 1 billion index able pages. XHTML 1.0 recommended by W3C

• 2001 – Wikipedia: encyclopedia that can be edited by anyone

• 2002 – Blogs become popular

• 2003 – iTunes.comand other legal Internet music downloading services appear. iTunes.com registers 25thmillion song download in Dec (“Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!” by Frank Sinatra).

• 2003 – Security problems. –SQL Slammer worm -largest and fastest spreading distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks ever. –Sobig.F virus -the fastest spreading virus ever –Blaster (MSBlast) worm – one of the most damaging worms ever.

• 2004 – MySpace and Facebook popularize online social networks

• 2005 – YouTubefounded by three former PayPal employees and sold to Google the next year for $1.65B

• 2006 – Twitterlaunches 140 character limit micro-blogging serviceTime Magazine’s person of the year: You. Acknowledges significance of user-generated content (Web 2.0)

• 2007 – One of the first massive cyber attacks: Estonian websites attacked by Russian hackers after relocating the Bronze Solider of Tallinn monument

• 2008 – Firefox 3 sets Guinness World Record for the “largest number of software downloads in 24 hours.” (8M downloads)

• 2008 – Google releases the Chrome web browser

• 2008 – W3C releases First Public Working Draft of HTML5 spec

• 2012 – ICANN reveals 1,410new generic top-level domains (gTLDs) like .apple, .xyz, and .dad

• 2013 – Mobile devices account for 18% of all web page views (StatCounter)